One drive technology of the future there will not initially be instead a number of different concepts. Auto Motor und Sport explains all alternatives to gasoline and diesel.
Away from oil is the motto. Alternative drive systems are called for which pollute the air less and protect the shrinking oil reserves - or commented ideally without them. But what fuel we will recharge in 20 years, what technology will power our cars?
Combustion engines with savings potential
One thing is clear: even in 2028 are internal combustion engines fueled by gasoline or diesel, still dominate. However, they will be much more economical than their current ancestors. Even with Otto engines, downsizing will prevail direct injection and turbocharging across the board. For diesel ever higher injection pressures for further increases in efficiency will provide.
Both methods will continue to converge in more advanced engines such as the Diesotto from the Mercedes F 700 also. This means that the diesel as the gasoline engine at part load works with a homogeneous fuel-air mixture, which will prevent especially the formation of particles and nitrogen oxides and reduce consumption. With the same objective, the mixture throughout the combustion chamber to be ignited simultaneously solely by the heat of compression for gasoline. At least in the partial load range, the spark plug is unnecessary.
The methods are called HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition = homogeneous charge compression ignition) or CAI (Controlled Auto Ignition = controlled auto-ignition). While the based gasoline engines developments of Mercedes and GM run with conventional gasoline or E85, requires the so-called CCS method of VW (Combined Combustion System = combined combustion system) tailor-made, synthetic diesel, preferably from biomass.
you can also save fuel by internal combustion engines to choose a size smaller than before and this grabs an electric motor including battery as support. Depending on the strength of the electric motors and the overall system design is known as mild or full hybrids. The former provide an electrical torque assistance during acceleration, a comfortable start-stop function as well as the so-called recuperation (when braking the electric motor operates as a generator, whereby electrical energy fed back into the batteries).
Purely electric driving over longer distances
Full hybrids allow their much stronger electric motors and larger batteries in addition purely electric driving over short distances. Lithium-ion instead of nickel metal in the future - - To extend the range, more powerful batteries and external charging terminals installed. The current for charging the battery is no longer generated in these so-called plug-in hybrids only in the driving operation by the engine, but should be able to be tapped at any outlet from the network.
Quite to the engine dispense pure electric vehicles which are occupied mainly in cities with access restrictions, a small, nevertheless stable niche. Most commuters are likely ranges of up to 115 kilometers suffice as they offered about the smart fortwo ed (electric drive) to the evening to come to work every morning and back home. Overnight, the batteries are recharged from a domestic power outlet.
Oxygen and hydrogen react on board
The distribution of electric vehicles, however, could increase rapidly if - manufacturers fixed quotas emission-free cars are required - as in the US. Fuel cell vehicles are also included. The electricity is generated on board, by reacting in the cell oxygen and hydrogen (H2). Here, apart from water vapor no emissions generated. The range should be comparable to the current petrol engine, which is why fuel cell cars are also suitable for long distance. However, this assumes that sufficient hydrogen is stored.
But in order to catch the problems at first. Because hydrogen can be stored at considerable expense in the vehicle. In addition, only an infrastructure from scratch would have to be established. Above all, the question of H2 production is not yet clear. Because to be truly environmentally friendly, the large required for this process amounts of energy must come exclusively from renewable sources.
If that will be possible in the future, now nobody can say for sure. Therefore, the sport and surveyed by auto motor manufacturers, suppliers, petroleum companies and specialists give the hydrogen as a fuel for mobile use for the time being no great opportunities.
Renewable resources have way out of oil dependency
Another alternative to oil could provide the biofuel: However, the public image of this alternative fuel depends currently quite wrong: You are to blame for the rise of food and let the poor therefore be even poorer. They also threatened as the Malaysian rain forest and its species diversity of plants and animals because of the sprawling palm oil plantations. The debate over whether empty plates were the price of full tanks, triggered growing nervousness especially in politics.
Nevertheless energy from renewable resources is a success. "The use of biomass to produce fuels in addition to vehicle technical measures to increase efficiency now the only option in the transport sector to replace fossil fuels and save greenhouse gases," it says in the current analysis of the FNR on the potential of biofuels. Whether from biomass, gas or coal - the good product properties of designer fuels are almost identical. They significantly reduce pollutant emissions. Special charm of biomass sprits: He is almost CO2 neutral.
Gas also is a favorable fuel alternative to gasoline and diesel in order to escape the rising fuel costs. In Germany two gas versions are offered: The naturally occurring gas in compressed form, hence the name CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) and the LPG (liquefied petroleum gas). The latter is also known as LPG, is a refinery product, obtained during the distillation of crude oil.
|a drive source||Summary|
|Hybrid||As a hybrid drive, the combination of two different drives is called. As a rule, a combustion engine with an electric motor is combined.|
|electric car||It was long the battery-powered electric car denied his everyday suitability. Recent energy scenarios but bring it again into play, forcing a re-evaluation.|
|fuel cell||The electricity generated in the fuel cell vehicle on board, by reacting in the cell oxygen and hydrogen (H2). Here, no emissions arise out of steam.|
|gas||Gas is cheap fuel alternative to gasoline and diesel in order to escape the rising fuel costs. About 30 gas vehicles, the manufacturers factory offer in Germany.|
|biofuel||Are empty plates, the price for full tank? Experts doubt it. Renewable Resources lead the way out of oil dependency.|
|ethanol||The ethanol fuel enjoys as E85, particularly in South and increasingly in North America popularity. Its name is derived from the 85 percent ethanol content.|
|internal combustion engine||In the long run diesel and petrol engines the number one stay with the car drives. but through optimization and new combustion processes such as HCCI they are more economical and cleaner.|
The modifications to the Mercedes A-Class was inherited to the CLA models. The refreshed CLA starts at 29,250 euros. Premiere feiertenn CLA, CLA Shooting Break and AMG CLA 45 at the New York Auto Show.
Mercedes CLA-owners must be set with the facelift of four-door coupe and shooting brake only a few changes. If the refreshed CLA models available at dealers in July - the order Vetting in April - then they wear a new black diamond grille and newly designed alloy wheels in greater choice. In addition, the front comes a new bumper with trim strip in silver, black or chrome. Neu on the rear bumper is optionally a diaphragm having integrated trim strip in chrome or black (Night package) between the tailpipe. The tailpipes themselves are now integrated into the bumper.
Facelift as in the A-Class
The interior is refreshed with new seat covers, trim and chrome controls and gets in the A-Class, a new instrument cluster and an optional larger display. In addition, the infotainment systems sociable and tie smartphones exhibit by Android, Apple and carplay Mirror link. Also new are the dials and red needles on the instrument cluster.
In terms of safety, the new CLA models set standard to an active brake assist and the drive program selection Dynamic Select. and full-LED headlights are optional for the CLA in the future to have. The tailgate opens on request gesture controlled and the AMG-Line can be combined with a trailer hitch.
New saving drive in the CLA is the CLA 180 d Edition BlueEfficency with 109 hp and manual transmission, with a standard consumption of 3.5 liters: shines (Shooting Break 3.6 liters). to have new four-wheel drive is the CLA 220 with 184 hp. New to the engine range is the CLA Shooting Brake is the CLA 180 BlueEfficency Edition with 122 hp and 5.5 liter fuel consumption.
Update for the AMG CLA 45 models
A special facelift get the AMG CLA 45 models. New now standard LED headlights, grille louvres in silver chrome, a spoiler lip on the boot lid (Coupe) and a newly designed front spoiler and a new diffuser insert at the rear are. The rim program was extended to two new designs
As an option for the sporting CLA models an AMG aerodynamic package is now available. It includes a larger front splitter, additional Flics, a black trailing edge on the rear and lateral separation edges of the back optical outlets.
The interior now carries more synthetic leather with contrast stitching. An optional AMG Dinamica package brings new applications and a sport steering wheel.
Mercedes CLA Prices start at 29,250 euros
To have are the new Mercedes CLA models with prices starting at 29,250 euros for the CLA 180 coupe - the starting price has thus risen by 36 euros. The CLA 200 is on the price list, the CLA 220 to 36,901 Euro, the CLA 250 to 37,104 Euro and the CLA 45 AMG with 56,823 Euro with at least 32,249 Euros.
Lowest Diesel is the CLA 180 d from 31,416 euros, the CLA 200 d is to be had from 34,064 euros and the 220-diesel will cost at least 38,598 euros. The charge for the Shooting Brake is in each case about 600 euros.
The new Touran is also available in the R-Line now. Thus, the transformed Kompaktvan outside and inside in a stressed sporty vehicle.
Volkswagen offers for the Touran two R-Line equipment packages: The "Exterieur" package starts from 760 euros and contains special bumpers front and rear many details. The R-Line logo is displayed in the radiator grille and side panels and doors.
For this, the sills are painted in glossy black and widened the roof rail is silver anodized. The R-Line package starts at 2,155 euros. The alloy wheels in 17 "or 18" is a choice between the versions Salvador and Marseille.
Comfort seats in the interior of the VW Touran R-Line
Inside, the buyer takes on top-comfort seats with the seat cover "Race" course. A color-coordinated headliner and numerous applications and inlays cost the interior to continue. The door sills are available in aluminum, the pedals in stainless steel. is directed with a multifunction sports steering wheel in leather with aluminum decor, where the R-Line logo is a must.
Those who want to change only the exterior of its Touran, is well served by the "exterior" variant. For a further upgraded the interior with comfort seats, the total package R-Line is worth.
|model||power||6-speed circuit / 7-speed DSG||standard consumption||Dimensions (LxWxH) / Wheelbase / (predecessor)|
|1.2 TSI||110 hp||standard / not available||K. A.||4,527 x 1,814 x 1,628 mm / 2,791 mm|
|1.4 TSI||150 hp||standard / optional||5.4 l / 100 km (with DSG)||4,527 x 1,814 x 1,628 mm / 2,791 mm|
|1.8 TSI||180 hp||not available / standard||K. A.||4,527 x 1,814 x 1,628 mm / 2,791 mm|
|1.6 TDI||110 hp||standard / optional||4.1 l / 100 km (with DSG)||4,527 x 1,814 x 1,628 mm / 2,791 mm|
|2.0 TDI||150 hp||standard / optional||K. A.||4,527 x 1,814 x 1,628 mm / 2,791 mm|
|2.0 TDI||190 hp||not available / standard||K. A.||4,527 x 1,814 x 1,628 mm / 2,791 mm|
Three years after the launch of the current Mercedes A-Class compact model is revised. The specifications more comfort, but also enhanced driving dynamics stood. At Goodwood, the new A-Class for the first time shows the public the big stage then treading at the IAA. Prices start at 23,747 euros.
The customers of the Mercedes A-class want more comfort, but not compromise on driving dynamics, says Mercedes-manager Ola Källenius. With the now upcoming facelift Mercedes wants to have answered customer demands. Ordered the new Mercedes A-Class from 3 July to the dealers it rolls then from the end of September. The new price list starts at 23,747 euros for the A 160, Favorable Diesel is the A 160 d at prices starting at 26,424 euros (all prices refer to the table below).
Electronic stability program for the Mercedes A-Class
Visually, the customers have to change very little. The front fascia of the new Mercedes A-Class shows more swept back, the grille is shown redrawn and optional LED headlights look into the night. the taillights and tailpipes were redrawn. Inside, new materials, a new instrument cluster and an optional larger display are used. In addition, the A-class smartphones should be able to integrate fully. Sports enthusiasts can enjoy the new optional equipment "Motorsport Edition" that brings AMG spoilers and F1 colors. was revised the offer of assistance systems that have been updated in their scope of services.
Completely new to the Mercedes A-Class is the electronic stability program "Dynamic Select" with which the characteristics of the engine, steering, transmission, suspension and air conditioning can be adjusted in four stages by pressing a button. You can choose from the steps Comfort, Sport, Eco and individual - in AMG 45 is also still a race adjustment. An additional charge, the system can also be combined with adaptive dampers.
Mercedes A 45 AMG climbs to 381 hp
Mercedes has expanded the engines for the new A-Class. New base engine is the 102 hp 1.6-liter four-cylinder gasoline engine in the A 160. New efficient motor is 109 hp A 180 d BEE with 3.5 liters fuel consumption. The A 220 d and the A 250 to put each to 7 PS. But the real hammer delivers the A 45 AMG, the future provides a whopping 381 hp and 475 Nm and thus sets the peak power in the compact segment again. In order for the sprint time is reduced to 100 km / h: 0.4 to 4.2 seconds. the new Dynamic Plus package and the Ride Control sports suspension If the vehicle dynamics continue to rise in total together with the shorter translated speed steps three to seven.
|A 200||27,911.45 €|
|A220 4MATIC||32,528.65 €|
|A 250 SPORT||36,568.70 €|
|A 250 4MATIC||36,610.35 €|
|A 250 SPORT 4MATIC||40,947.90 €|
|A 45 4MATIC||51,051 €|
|A 160||23,746.45 €|
|A 180||24,936.45 €|
|A180 BlueEFFICIENCY Edition||25,412.45 €|
|A160 d||26,423.95 €|
|A 180 d||27,375.95 €|
|A180 d BlueEFFICIENCY Edition,||27,851.95 €|
|A 200 d||28,684.95 €|
|A200 d 4MATIC||33,064.15 €|
|A220 d 4MATIC||36,848.35 €|
The rear engine is obsolete today with the exception of Porsche and smart in high-volume cars. That makes this automotive species for collectors more interesting. A review of the rear engine history.
At the beginning of the rear engine was. The pioneers Carl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler constructed in 1886 each have a car with a single-cylinder mini-engine pulsed on or before the rear axle.
Due to the design of the motor is located at first in the tail
The reason for the installation of the engine in the rear particularly illustrates Daimler's motorized carriage, which the designer at the company Wilhelm Wimpff & Son in Stuttgart had ordered - of course, without an engine. The model "Americaine" with its narrow wooden spoke wheels and the two forward facing seats were without horses and drawbar, but received the new reciprocating internal combustion engine. The Daimler-placed as close as possible to the fixed rear drive axle before the second seat. this is the front offered no room and had to be rotated for steering.
Also in the rear of the cylinder of Carl Benz, whose three-wheeled motor car formally already said goodbye to the carriage chugged. Nevertheless, the design principle of the four-wheeled rear-engine cars to turn of the century initially held at the sporty two-seater models, as virtually every manufacturer already Ground surrounded on front engine.
The engines were larger and technically more complex, so they claimed more space. Added to this was probably a psychological component that you wanted to be a push from his horsepower draw as once preferred the carriages. After 1900, therefore, the front engine prevailed almost without exception in all vehicle classes.
Hanomag army bread and Mercedes 130 put on rear engine
Among the few exceptions that adhered to the rear-mounted engine, the two-seater small car Hanomag counted 2/10 PS 1925, the 0.5-liter single-cylinder engine provided in the tail for moderate acceleration. Because of its angular shape, he received the nickname "army bread". Equipped with only a headlamp and a door (for stability reasons) he founded the cheap image for cars with rear engine.
Only Mercedes dared in 1934 with the 130 (W 23) attempt a full-grown cars with an aft-mounted engine, but could not prevail. It was too expensive, extremely hecklastig and offered in the rounded nose too few trunk.
however, the rear engine concepts were clearly successful automotive designers Hans Ledwinka and Ferdinand Porsche, who were also friends with each other. Both favored the air cooling, which wanted to use for a large, avant-looking streamlined sedan and Porsche for a compact, rugged everyday car Ledwinka.
With the help of his Sohns Hans Ledwinka 1934, before the Tatra Type 77 with three liters large, air-cooled V8 engine of the astonished public. It formed the basis for a to 1998 produced series of luxury sedans from the Czech Republic, where mainly politicians and party officials were traveling.
Biggest fan of the rear engine was Ferdinand Porsche
however, Porsche baked prefer smaller but more abundant in retrospect rolls. His compact car with air-cooled four-cylinder boxer engine at the rear, the 1933 first undertook as NSU first test runs, Porsche developed from 1934 commissioned by the state to a Volkswagen.
However, he made his breakthrough as a successful civilian vehicle until 1946. The later affectionately known as "Beetle" called perennial remained in Mexico until 2003 in production and was after the Second World War, the favorite car of the Germans. also scored in the US and particularly in Mexico and Brazil, and today is one of the beetles to the everyday street scene.
Heck motors provide traction and maneuverability easier
The benefits that offered the Beetle over its competitors are to be taken from the minutes of a Alpine Test Drive from the year 1938th The cars from the VW-303 series had an eagle against Junior, a DKW (both with front-wheel drive), take a Opel Kadett and a Steyr. All test participants had a front engine. then you said: "The road of the Volkswagen, due Einzelradabfederung, torsion bars, low center of gravity and the cornering stiffness associated permits faster driving through curves." In addition, the VW steering liked "by light and completely vibration-free transition."
but they were far more important the larger interior and improved driving comfort of VW: "The arrangement of the seats, stowing luggage, travel and car noises are available by Volkswagen a much better solution." This sums up the advantages of the realized in the VW rear engine concept: the deeply built into the chassis engine delivers good traction and makes little noise. The steering is without load by the motor easily and precisely. Most importantly, the space gain propeller shaft appears through a gerücktes significantly forward cockpit and lack of unwieldy for front-engine rear-wheel drive.
Standard drive in post-war compact car
These advantages made the rear engine of the standard equipment of many small cars of the postwar era to about 1970. In addition, Volkswagen implemented in Germany BMW, NSU and the Hans Glas GmbH with the Goggomobil to the space-saving arrangement of the engine. Italy with Fiat 500, 600 and 850, the Eastern Bloc with Skoda 1000 MB and France with Renault and Simca went to the war, also with a rear engine.
In contrast, the British held the standard drive loyalty or favored the front-wheel drive like the Austin Mini. Also on the continent, this drive concept began gradually, which was represented at the meeting by the Citroën 2 CV since 1948: Renault came in 1961 with the R4, Fiat in 1969 with the 128 and Volkswagen in 1974 with the front-wheel drive Golf as Beetle successor.
Rear engine of sports cars
Three manufacturers took advantage of the low weight, high traction and low design to their advantage and wrote racing history - Abarth, Porsche and Renault Alpine. In all first-behaved mass technology with only four cylinders was used: three times Abarth Fiat and Simca, Alpine Renault and Porsche by Volkswagen.
But only Porsche has survived as an independent brand that produces since 1948 fast cars with a rear engine in series, the motor power increased from 40 to 620 hp (GT2 RS). Also the name of the man who survived, who made Germany after the war peacefully mobile again.
1983 appeared with the Pirelli golf on the first GTI special edition. 1.8-liter engine, and 112 horsepower. At that time, with enough horsepower, the compact sports car crowd would today only so fall upon him. Tuned GTI Pirelli fogs them though.
The VW Golf I GTI Pirelli was quickly recognized from the outside. A striking feature was the 6x14 inch alloy wheels with Pirelli logo. The hot hatch looked through two double headlights. They increased production ceased in the overtaking of VW Golf I GTI.
Traction until the third transition
Patrick Mielke, who specializes with his company PM Custom Made to the individualization of cars, has downgraded its Pirelli golf on two headlights. pretend to be GTI has no overtaking. "I bought him a friend. The car was then completely dismantled. I have rebuilt it and the headlights "dismantled for purely aesthetic reasons, the owner, in whose hands the Pirelli Golf into a monster says growing up.
In the first GTI Special Edition a 1.8-liter engine werkelte with 112 hp. 33 years later the Pirelli golf with this performance would be a pussycat middle of a herd of wild Bulldogen. Seat Leon Cupra (300 PS), VW Golf R (300 hp), Ford Focus RS (350 hp), the Audi RS 3 (367 hp), BMW M2 (370 hp) and Mercedes-AMG A45 (381 hp) show off their horsepower as Cristiano Ronaldo after a goal. But PM Custom Made has the VW Golf GTI Pirelli I taught the barking. And thus it should scare today's hot hatch itself.
Mielke Pirelli Golf, painted in Lhasa green metallic, makes 600 hp and about 750 Nm. He estimates that the hot hatch could tear the 0-100 sprint in 4.5 seconds - yes, if the tires would not spin. "The performance is brutal oversized. One can say that the car until the end of the third, early fourth gear properly builds traction "In the first two courses of Golf fogs his environment a -. If you are daring enough. Thus the power to dissolve but not only with white smoke billowing into the air, Mielke strapped on the car semi slicks, he draws on 15-inch rims. As a second set of wheels it offers normal road tires stuck on 17 inch wheels.
Tuned VW Golf I GTI Pirelli for 19,000 euros
Headlights and wheels no longer correspond to the original. The engine is different. Mielke wired the 1.8-liter turbo 20V Vierzilyinder from the Golf IV in the Pirelli special edition, then made more than 10,000 pieces of the VW. The aggregate pimpte PM Custom Made according to the rules of art. The list of changes: a turbocharger on their own (based on the Garrett GTW 34), a self-made fuel rail, special injectors own Stoßaufladungskrümmer, 76 mm suction pipe, 76 mm exhaust system Setrab charge air coolers, two fuel pumps, external wastegate valve and Aero Motive fuel pressure regulator , The power transmission guarantees 02M 6-speed gearbox with reinforced wheel. A feast for the eyes: the open gear lever gate in the interior.
So that the driver is informed of all vital organs of the engine, Mielke has installed new displays for oil pressure, boost pressure, fuel pressure, and exhaust gas temperature in the dashboard. Recaro sports seats clamp the occupants in the tuned Pirelli golf, a roll cage to ensure the safety. With a coil over the GTI should better come around curves and a new braking system to capture him from high speeds.
Monster GTI stands on mobile.de for sale. Mielke estimated a fixed price of 19,000 euros. Click here for the offer. In our photo show, we show you the 600-horsepower VW Golf I GTI Pirelli.
The next generation of the Mercedes GLS starts 2019 on a new platform, with new engines and a Maybach version. A first Erlkönig of the big new SUV has now caught on test drives.
Since 2012, the current Mercedes GL is on the market in 2015 was followed by the facelift with the name change to GLS to draw the picture SUV closer to the S-Class. 2019 then a fully nbeue generation hits the market.
The Erl King is now considered to test drive the go. Our Erl King hunters lying in wait and took a picture of the new seven-seater. The substructure for the new Mercedes GLS delivers the new MHA platform (Modular High Architecture), which is reserved for the big SUV and crossover models. With this new kit the Mercedes GLS will significantly lose weight while model changes. Of course, he gains several features. The new packaging brings the occupants more space. In addition, the new platform, of course, contributes numerous new assistance systems and semi-autonomous driving functions.
Line six-cylinder as diesel, petrol and hybrid
But MHA creates new options on the drive side. implement the new straight-six engines and diesel with up to 340 hp and a gasoline engine with up to 460 hp, but also their hybrid variants. This should in the GLS and the 560 e familiar from the S-Class hybrid drive that combines a 367 hp and 500 Nm strong three-liter V6 petrol engine with a 90 kW, 440 Nm electric motor, for use. In addition a 9-speed automatic transmission that combines the transducer, the separating clutch and the electric motor. In S 560 e of these drive train ensures an all-electric range of around 50 kilometers. At the upper end of the range of AMG versions will be available again, the draw in this model generation on the proven four-liter V8 twin-turbo and deliver up to 612 hp.
GLS as Maybach
As a new stage of development of the GLS series is the new edition in a particularly luxurious Maybach version - come on the market - like the Mercedes S-Class.
The design of the Mercedes GLS seems to work for a less bulky appearance. New acts stretched by its lowered roofline. The face should be modeled on that of GLE.
Acura, the luxury brand of Honda shows at the New York Auto Show, the 2018 model year its sporty sedan TLX. A highlight is the electronically controlled all-wheel drive SH-AWD. Which it is not for all models.
Acura shows in New York, the model 2018, the TLX. The sports sedan in the US luxury brand of Honda gets a new, more precise design and more technology such as Apple and Android carplay car or an electronically controlled all-wheel drive for the six-cylinder models.
Sporty A-Spec for younger buyers
The TLX is available in three variants, the new A-Spec is designed to appeal to younger buyers. To complement this, Apple and Android carplay car as standard on all models. There are also driver assistance systems such as collision warning with brake function, adaptive cruise control, lane departure warning and road departure warning.
The basic model with 2.4 liter i-VTEC four-cylinder stands on 17-inch wheels of six-cylinder engine has 18-inch standard. The V6 also differs by a double-flow exhaust and a rear apron with diffuser look, from the basic model. With the Technology package, the V6 also gets chrome on the grill, seats with contrast stitching and a rear spoiler. The Technology package includes trapezoidal LED fog lights, a surround camera system, wireless charging for mobile phone, a heated steering wheel and heated seats. One of the two packages is also a prerequisite for the optional all-wheel drive with torque vectoring.
All-wheel with Torque Vectoring
Even the TLX V6 A-Spec is to get either with the SH-AWD all-wheel drive mentioned. The A-Spec sporting aligned, it has, inter alia, a modified front apron, wider side sills, a thicker rear diffuser and the spoiler on the trunk lid is painted black. There are also 19-inch wheels with tires 245, a sporty tuned suspension and a more direct steering. In June, the new model year comes to the dealers.
The Renault R8 appear in 1962 as a successor Dauphine. With the new model, the French are introducing the hitherto quite successfully practiced rear engine concept in the next larger class.
While suspension and wheelbase are unchanged, comes in the rear of edged four-door model, a new four-cylinder engine used initially with 956 cm. and 40 hp. In 1964, the stronger Renault R8 Major appears as a "luxury" version with a 1.1-liter engine that makes 49 horsepower.
Light, agile and with a rear engine
But the real star of the R8 family is nicknamed Gordini, is only available in blue with white stripes and emerges with its 86-horsepower engine 1100s as an ideal base for car racing and rally events (from 1967 with 1,3 liter and 88 PS).
All the more tragic that genuine Renault R8 Gordini are rare and expensive today. But even a "normal" R8 offers plenty of charming flair of the sixties. Or maybe a R8 S? The 53-horsepower, more civilian sport version of Gordini was delivered entirely in yellow and also carries the two auxiliary lights.
The Renault R8 is to have from about 5,000 euros.
|price||Category and model|
|From 4500 €||Italian classics: Alfa Romeo Alfasud|
|From 5000 €||Classic rear-engined Renault R8|
|From 6500 €||Small car classic: Opel Kadett A|
|From 7,500 €||Open classic cars: BMW 325i Cabriolet|
|From 8000 €||Japanese classic: Toyota Celica (TA 22)|
|From 9500 €||US-Car: Ford Gran Torino|
|From 10.000 euro||Sporty classic cars: Mercedes 190 E 2.3-16|
|From 10.000 euro||Sports car: Lotus Esprit Series I|
|From 12,000 euros||Bizarre Swede: Volvo 262C|
|From 13,000 euros||British roadster: Sunbeam Alpine|
|From 15,000 euros||Pre-war classics: DKW F8|
|From 15,000 euros||Classic luxury: Daimler Double Six|
From July 2013 Nissan offers the optimized 1.5 dCi turbo diesel. Developed by Nissan alliance partners self-ignition is to have more torque and a lower consumption. He also is coupled as standard with a start-stop system.
The new common rail engine maintains its power output of 110 hp, but the torque has been increased by 20 to 260 Newton meters. At the same time the Japanese reduce the average fuel consumption of 4.8 to 4.2 liters / 100 km, CO2 emissions are 109 g / km, earlier it was 129 g / km. This represents an improvement of 12.5%.
Thanks to EGR Euro 6 classification
A low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation system enables the Euro 6 classification for the 1.5 dCi in Nissan Juke. Otherwise, it remains at d r speed of 175 km / h and the acceleration from 0 to 100 kph in 11.2 seconds.
In addition to some internal engine measures and the speed range of the manual six-speed gearbox has been changed. Gears 1 and 2 are translated shorter for lower consumption the other four runs were completed using a higher gear.
More power, sharper look, Improved Sound and larger wheels - this is the program with the tuner JE Design the Skoda Octavia RS advances to the body.
With a complementary box for the motor control for the two-liter TSI engine of the four-cylinder is from 230 to 300 hp and set from 350 to 430 Nm. With this increase in performance of the RS230 of JE Design sprints in 6.6 seconds from zero to 100. Its top speed reaching 258 km / h. The increase in power comes including two years warranty on the engine, drive and transmission.
Up to 20-inch wheels
More sound for more power provides a valve exhaust system that can be operated via the driving profile selection in the cockpit. But also on the optics of the Octavia has been filed at JE Design in Leingarten. So there is to the original tailpipes a new rear diffuser. For the vehicle front spoiler corners, the refiner offers to a central part. A four-piece set door trim strips emphasizes the sidelines of the sporty middle class model. Headlight covers provide a more imposing impression. aerodynamic program is completed by a roof spoiler element. From a practical nature is a new bumper protection bar.
The chassis shorter springs are available for the Octavia, lowered by 35 mm or a thread chassis, which provides up to 65 mm lowering, for election. The program also includes alloy wheels 8.5 x can be found for the Czechs called Twin Five Spoke in the 20-inch black-gloss polished edge together with tires in size 235/30. Alternatively, there are wheels in 18 and 19 inches.
Lexus shows at the Paris Motor Show a SUV concept with a completely new interior concept. The compact crossover with the abbreviation UX comes from the European Design Center ED2.
The UX Concept should look as robust as an SUV, drive like a coupe and be a typical Lexus simultaneously. The dimensions, the UX is compact. it is just 4.40 meters long, 1.52 meters high and 1.90 meters wide. The wheelbase of the four-seater is 2639 mm. The design concept is called Lexus "inside-out". Interior designer Alexandre Gommier describes this as Specifically, this means "powerful symbiosis between the outside of the vehicle and its inner space." Body lines as the strong wheel arches, which span over 21-inch wheels with 255/50 tire, drag extends into the interior.
Lexus UX: Study without mirrors
On the exterior mirrors UX neglected and instead show the road behind cameras on two monitors, under which border the lines of strong wheel arches. The A-pillar is partially light permeable, it is made of a polycarbonate-clad aluminum support.
The lines of the rear wheel arches visually end just before the rear head restraints. The roof rail is also apparently in the interior. Seen from above, the lines of UX Concept X-shape extend from the inside to the outside. The paint named "Immersive Amethyst" should additionally produce a three-dimensional effect and thus betonen.Reifen the design and wheels are designed as one unit. One difference between the tire wall and the rim is not visible.
Interior and operation, the designers in the crossover study also resorted. The driver sits the passenger clearly visually separated: In front of him superimposed forms build on, he should have the impression that they are fully responsible.
Three-dimensional displays in the SUV concept
Displays and controls are partly designed in three dimensions. The upper display projjiziert his ads similar to a head-up display in front of the windshield. In the instrument cluster, a ball seems to float, combines analog and digital displays. The rear passengers get on through rear-hinged doors and sitting on a lounge-like rear seat.
The autonomous driving is considered the largest disruption since the invention of the car. There are many difficulties - particularly ethical. How to act an autonomous car? The ethics committee of the BMVI has prepared a 20-point plan. The Cabinet has now adopted an action plan to implement the results.
Autonomous driving cars are the future. They should make road traffic safer, perhaps even completely accident-free. But at what price? How dependent the company wants to make of technically complex system? How far autonomous cars may go to prevent injury or damage? What happens in a so-called dilemma situation, ie if an accident is unavoidable and must be weighed, which person may be more damaged than another?
Dobrindt convenes ethics committee
Federal Transport Minister Alexander Dobrindt had to set up an ethics committee, which deals with the issues raised by the theme of "autonomous driving". the Commission by former Federal Constitutional Court judge Udo Di Fabio is headed. Also with it are board members of the German automotive industry, such as Ulrich Eichhorn, Head of Research and Development at VW or Renata Jungo Brüngger, CEO at Daimler for justice and integrity.
Overall, the ethics committee drew up 20 points, which were presented on 20 June 2017, the public.
The Ethics Commission has mainly in their work on the steps (levels) 4 "fully automated, with Driver" and "fully automated, without driver" 5 concentrated. Quasi those stages in which a person is released from full responsibility of vehicle operation. The autonomous driving car should be able to cope with problem situations in these stages by themselves. As far as the basic assumption.
A problem arises already with the question of who will be held responsible if an accident but without passengers, but only with property damage occurs (points 10 and 11 of the report). The ethics committee has to a simple answer: "The retention of the human responsibility shifts [...] to the manufacturers and operators of technical systems." Means that the manufacturer and the government are responsible for their systems and the associated infrastructure. So far, the producers had always refused to want to pay for accidental damage. Whether the changes in the future, however, the legislature decides.
No decision by personal characteristics
have a special interest in the public the so-called "dilemma situations", ie situations that can not be done without a crash. What are the autonomous systems do? "When inevitable accident situations every qualification is strictly prohibited by personal characteristics." Meaning: It must not be given to whether it is now more appropriate to injure probably sick and old people rather than killing or young and fit.
It is further stated in the report: "Real dilemmatic decisions about 'life for life' may depend on the specific situation." It could not have the outset (ex ante) to decide what should be decided in such a position. The report also cites an example - with a human driver: the could choose to take his own life by driving off a cliff, or to move towards a group of children playing - with an uncertain outcome.
There is no "right" ethical decision - human and autonomous driving. No matter how the programmed computer is from another human - it would be determined by others about the life of a single man. And this conclusion is "in many ways" problematic.
Often there is no "ethically correct" decision
On the one hand, the state could, of course, define what should happen - that would be, however, a large incision in the value system of our society. In our case law everyone is equal, the protection of individual human life is extremely important. What should prompt the state to kill innocent individuals and individuals in order to save others?
Another dilemma case is, however, quite clearly defined. So the damage to property is to be preferred to the personal injury always, if it is predictable. Even higher animals (insects) fall into the category of "property damage", but are unlike material goods classified as "worthy of protection".
In short, the car is to avoid - and suddenly and unexpectedly passed by no means the control to the operator. In an emergency, the autonomous car must be able to find a safe place and leave the car. (Points 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 17, 19)
No total monitoring of users
Of course, playing even with autonomous vehicles, the (economic) interests of the manufacturers involved. The problem is that the systems have to raise a significant portion of relevant data on the driver during use to function. So as objective a ride, life, carried passengers, and so on. It is also clear that manufacturers use these data to be happy for their own purposes and / or would resell to third parties.
The Commission says this: vehicle owners and users should be allowed to "fundamentally about sharing and using their accumulated vehicle data" decide. "One of the normative power of the facts as prevalent as in data access by the operators of search engines or social networks should be discouraged early on."
The Commission also calls for education about the proper use of automated systems in the context of digital education. (Item 20)
Please find attached the full Commission report all exactly 20 points formulated for download.
The Czech VW subsidiary Skoda has long been considered a return to the US market. The decision will be the 2017th
"Over the next year we want to have the question of North America decided for us," Skoda CEO Bernhard Maier told the "Handelsblatt". Skoda had already exported the late 1950s to the early 1960s vehicles to North America. 2017 Maier wants to start selling already in Iran, South Korea and Singapore.
polish VW Image
Skoda wants to be represented worldwide in 120 markets by the year 2025th Currently, the Czechs offeriern their cars in 102 markets. Many market observers in a possible comeback of the Skoda brand in the US market an opportunity for the VW group to polish the damaged by the diesel exhaust scandal image again.
Industry leader Polaris brings to autumn a new entry-level ATV on the market. The new Sportsman 570 lures with much power.
As a pioneer and industry leader, the inventor of the ATV, the US manufacturer Polaris, the growing competition from the Far East has so far objected strongly. However, the current entry-level model is at last getting on in years: the petrol engine of 500 Sportsman ATV does not fit into the time.
Polaris Sportsman 570 Forest remains favorable
The overdue revision, however, has not used Polaris to turn sharply change their price, on the contrary, the new model Polaris Sportsman 570 Forest will be offered at the same price as the 500 predecessor. With the injection and the larger displacement, the output of the Polaris Sportsman 570 Forest rises by about 20 percent to 44 hp. Thus one is especially well positioned in the 500cc class against the cheap competition from China.
The Sportsman 570 Forest is brand-usual well equipped. Independent suspension all round for more ground clearance and better handling, a winch with 1.2 metric tons of pulling force, automatic four-wheel drive and a full-featured digital instrument.
More space on the device
Polaris Sportsman 570 Forest should offer more freedom of movement than the previous model with a new design in the foot and seat area. Beneath the front carrier, a large storage compartment, the rear luggage rack with 80 kilos capacity has the Polaris-own "Lock&Ride "-Fastening, to secure the load easily. The tank of Polaris Sportsman 570 Forest was increased to 2.3 liters to 17 liters.
The Sportsman 570 Forest can be adjusted with bracket with different bumpers, cargo boxes or -Koffern, Porter Guardrails, windshields, deflectors or Gewehrbox. For the labor use in winter is a selection of snow signs are available.
Polaris offers the Sportsman 570 Forest series in three variants approval and two lengths. For pure labor input, the "Off Road" model is designed without a license conversions, it starts at 7,490 euros. The more favorable conversion variant with retail price approval, but reduced power costs 500 euros more, the LOF tractor approval with open power 1,000 euros extra. Here Polaris indicates to provide Germany uniform conversion rates in order to ensure the necessary quality. In the ATV industry it is not uncommon normally that every dealer installed its own components and wired to personal taste.
In addition to the normal versions of the Polaris Sportsman 570 Forest there is the version with electric power steering (EPS Sportsman 570 Forest), which costs 500 euros each addition. 1,000 euros extra to the standard models cost the Touring version. Which is designed with a longer wheelbase and body especially for the two-person operation, but loses in terms of off-road capability over the shorter Polaris Sportsman 570 Forest.
The colors Polaris is economical in Germany. The standard models are only available in white and green, EPS and Touring variants in white. Expected launch of the Polaris Sportsman 570 Forest in November.