Air conditioners: operation and maintenance

Air conditioning is hardly an integral part of the car today. What many do not know how to use it properly - and how important is their regular maintenance. Here are the answers to the most important questions about the air conditioning service.

08/22/2014 Luca light
What types of air conditioners are there?

First and foremost, a distinction is made between manual climate control and air machines. While the machines can be set to a desired temperature and automatically adjust the cooling capacity based on the measured internal temperature, the cooling power can be set for manual air conditioning systems only.

Why is the air service so important?

Since air conditioners work in a closed system, many manufacturers write the Air Service not available and leave it in the context of customer service at a visual inspection of the refrigerant item and the filter change. Especially in older cars, it can cause problems when the system is operated with too little refrigerant. According to Christian Spiegel, Bosch expert in air conditioning service units, the investments lose hoses and other system-related leaks annually up to ten percent of the refrigerant.
Can you do the air service itself?

The air service must be performed by a specialist workshop, since this technical requirements as a climate service unit, a leak detection system, various oils and expertise are required.

What happens when Air Service?

When air service the cooling liquid are sucked out of the system and separate the refrigerant-oil mixture. The refrigerant is then recycled, disposed of the oil. In order to remove any residual moisture and to check the tightness of the system, a vacuum pump is connected. After passing the leak test via the existing vacuum, the previously discharged amount of oil as a new oil and specified by the manufacturer amount of refrigerant to be filled. Finally, following a printing or functional test of the plant.

What components are defective in general, and how does this happen?

Concrete wear limits for the entire system does not exist. However, experts advise to have to perform a C service every two years. Here fall leaks on aged or porous hoses and seals as early on as broken air capacitors. Particular latter are often exposed to falling rocks or saline spray water in winter. With such mechanical damage or rust damage in the capacitor must be replaced. In older models, it happens also that air compressors overheat if the coolant level is too low, there will be lost with the refrigerant and lubricant. Modern vehicles, however, are usually equipped with a low pressure switch that turns off the air conditioning at too low level for safety's sake.

How much maintenance and repair?

For the Air Service euros are usually less than 100 due. however, repairs are significantly expensive. For a Golf VI, for example, only the air conditioning compressor can cost more than 400 euros, for a capacitor together with the associated dryer are depending on the model around 200 euros. Along with the installation quickly several thousand euros come together because depending on the vehicle and the extent of damage.

What helps against bad smells, and where did they come from?

With its warm and moist surface of the evaporator is an excellent breeding ground for fungi and bacteria that can cause foul odors. Remedy sprays and prolonged operation of the air conditioning. In addition, it helps to turn off the system always five minutes before the end of the journey, so that the evaporator dries. If that fails, the system can also be professionally cleaned and disinfected in the workshop.

Operating the air conditioning right?

When boarding first open the doors and the sliding roof so that the accumulated heat to escape. Manual air conditioning switch beginning to recirculation mode, since the inside cools more quickly. Later You can change back to fresh air. The air vents should always be fully open, as partially closed nozzles increase the back pressure, slow cooling and thus increase the demand for energy. In addition, air conditioners should be set to medium temperatures. Experts recommend a year-round setting of 22 degrees. Especially older air conditioners should run in summer and winter once a month for at least ten minutes so that the shaft seal of the compressor is lubricated and not leaking.

In Review: rubber band as a cell phone holder ?: To secure the smartphone in the car

Life hacks, practical tips for each day will not only make life easier, but also protect nerves and wallet. We test what the secrets are all right for cars. This time: rubber bands as a smartphone holder.

28/10/2016 Viktoria Umbach 1 comment

The problem is as old as the smartphone itself: you are traveling by car, no navigation at hand, so the navigation system of the smartphone needs help. Actually quite simple, but where do you fix the phone when there are no appropriate support is available? They should be the solution: rubber bands. Whether the tapes actually serve as a smartphone holder. We have taken the test!

The experimental setup is extremely simple: a rubber band, a smart phone and a pen. Finished. Important: worn-out rubber bands, unfortunately, are no good, everything stands or falls with the clamping force! You should also be careful not to use bands that are too small or too thin to be able to hold a mobile phone.

Tact is needed!

The first lesson: the trick looks at first sight easier than it is! to get the rubber band through the ventilation of the car is not for the fidgety hands. Here tact and patience is appreciated! So that the band does not disappear in the lattice of ventilation, the pin can be called to help. Simply hold the upper side of the rubber with the fingers and pull the pin with the lower side through the mesh. This step is done, the smartphone can be vertically pulled through the rubber band.

The question remains whether the elasticity of the rubber is sufficient to keep the mobile phone while driving in place. At least in our case it worked. Braking speed, and finally a traffic light start. Fits.

Viktoria Lifehacks rubber bands Photo: Patrick Lang
Our conclusion: The Gummbänder have passed our test with 10 out of 15 points!


The mobile phone is secure. The clamping force of the band actually enough to hold your smartphone. In addition, the gums are also less expensive than a conventional Navigation mount. If the nerves are spared, however, when attaching remains questionable. Alternatives to the traditional rubber band, for example, hair bands of cloth, are not suitable, since the material can not hold the phone.

Do not forget: The rubber band holder is to be used exclusively for navigation purposes! Apps like WhatsApp and Co. may be operated under any circumstances while driving!

This Lifehacks we tested
Toothpaste as a cleanerread here
Belt as a bottle openerread here
Tape as memory functionread here
Rubber band as a smart phone holderread here
Remote control key with brainsread here

Winter tire test in the format 245 / 40-18 V: test tires Pirelli W240 Sottozero II

Winter tires in the dimension 245 / 40-18 today are actually no longer uncommon for some manufacturers but apparently still a very special challenge. Three premium products stand on a Mercedes E500 the comparison test on snow, wet and dry roads.

Jochen Übler

Pirelli W240 Sottozero II

Test result:
Pirelli has its strengths clearly on wet road conditions. Here, the Pirelli Sottozero II convinced W240 also with an excellent driving behavior. Gripnievau be lying on snow under the Dunlop and Conti.

So is assessed:
The tire with the best value per criterion gets full marks each. In the steering precision count the directness and the response from the central position, while handling the highest possible neutrality in the border area.

Overview: Winter tire test Mercedes E500
  • Winter tires 245/40 R18 V the test page 1
  • Test tires Dunlop SP Winter Sport 3D Page 2
  • Test Tires Continental TS 830 P page 3
  • Test tires Pirelli W240 Sottozero II page 4

Last exit in the Audi RS 4 Avant: On farewell tour with the naturally aspirated V8

Again leaving an estimated automobile with a naturally aspirated V8 stage - the Audi RS 4 Avant. Although there are certainly reasons to look forward to the follow-turbo engine, due to the combination with its lush 4.2-liter unit is a worthy farewell. Why not in Andalusia?

10/10/2015 Jens Dralle Powered by

As road longing the A-397 did not go from Marbella to Ronda so far in history - at least not that we know of. And our knowledge of Spanish literature and art adheres admittedly quite limited. However, for friends tended corner combinations it applies beyond doubt as a dream route, and for all who are on secluded racetracks, anyway.

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Fahrbericht Audi RS 4 Avant
Sports car 09/2015
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Porsche Panamera 4S (2016) in the test: new edition of the sports luxury sedan

Body, powertrain, electronics, Operation: Even if you hardly look it from the outside, Porsche has left no sheet on the other the new Panamera. We tested the 440 bhp 4S.

19/11/2016 Dirk Gulde 2 comments

Meanwhile, it is pitch-dark, the evening rush hour has to drizzle city and surrounding fixed in a headlock, and now it's starting to even. Or as we say here: perfect conditions for the first test drive in the new Panamera 4S.

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Single review The new Porsche Panamera 4S
auto motor und sport 23/2016
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Bentley Continental GT V8 in the test: Without W Suits

Overnight, it snowed. We have to resort to test to Italy. With the Bentley Continental GT V8 and its 507 hp turbo gasoline on tour.

26/12/2012 Sebastian Renz

The Bentley Boys were young gentlemen with unbescheidenem assets, variable ladies acquaintances and bold courage. She enjoyed life to the fullest, not only, but also lay like so on. About the Train Bleu, the express train from Cannes to Calais. Woolf Bernato, diamond and gold mining heritage, Bentley's shareholders and three-time Le Mans winner, bet I can do it from the Riviera by car to London before the train reached Calais. On 13 March 1930 he starts in the Speed ​​Six. On the 14th, he reached over bumpy Routes National and after a channel crossing by mail boat his gentleman's club in London four minutes before the train enters the station of Calais. Since then, Bentley apply as an instance of the continental journey.

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Single Review Bentley Continental GT V8 Continental Express
auto motor und sport 27/2012
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Mercedes CLA Shooting Brake vs Skoda Octavia Combi RS: designer piece or sport wagon?

Sure, the new Mercedes CLA Shooting Brake has more design lovers as utility optimizer in their sights. But the Skoda Octavia RS is visually attractive and refreshing dynamic to much cheaper. Approval for two real types.

06/22/2015 Bernd Stegemann 1 comment

Pretty reasonable Mercedes, the many pragmatic compact station wagon oppose a rather unreasonable. Even A-Class and CLA coupe on the same front-wheel drive platform're stressed different from the others and thus very successful, and for real estate car fans there are still the more spacious, but more expensive Model T from C. However, the entry has to climb surcharge will be rewarded with 3,500 euros.

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comparison test Mercedes CLA Shooting Brake, Skoda Octavia
auto motor und sport 11/2015
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Mercedes S 63 AMG 4Matic in the test: Extremely sharp S

585 hp and 900 Nm, which sounds pretty aggravated. The Mercedes S 63 AMG 4Matic is nevertheless not a wild steam hammer, distributed power and torque very targeted.

14/10/2013 Heinrich Lingner

Number games do not help here. To understand this Mercedes S-Class, you must do something more to memorize than performance. Some 2.6 million Mercedes S-Class have been built since the first W116 of the 1,972th parked bumper to bumper and door handle to door handle, they covered all together about one hundredth of the Saarland, or almost completely, the island of Borkum. Why are you reading this? Of all these S-Class models, the new Mercedes S 63 AMG 4Matic is the most desirable. Point.

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Fahrbericht Mercedes S 63 AMG Sharp S
auto motor und sport 20/2013
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Audi TT RS with 340 hp in the Super Test: on coupe with five-cylinder turbo Track

The 1994 after 20 years ended with the Audi RS2 era of Audi five-cylinder engine experienced an impressive renaissance: the 340-hp Super Test candidate Audi TT RS is waiting, the first classic sports coupe quattro GmbH not only with all-wheel drive, but ties with its characterful five-cylinder -turbo also the times of the legendary Sport quattro S1.

27.01.2013 Horst von Saurma Powered by

The widely used in team sports, supported by mutual hand fives Ritual "Give me five" is busy in his stressed mood-enhancing effect similar positive as this country expressed on other occasions quip, sometimes all a blind eye to make his straight. From a physiological perspective, the number is five not insignificant what the man will certainly like to confirm from the sawmill. Only in the school's five spells trouble. But after five still the six-threatening, and we can deduce that the five is better than six, we accept the school evaluation system, for once, as a coherent, also in terms of engine configurations consistent appraisal model. 

Five better than six? This ranking, the majority of motor popes and with them the front of the car salesman would probably close emphatically. but applies the five-cylinder engine since its discovery as the amputated version of the traditional antretenden with a big image advantage six-cylinder engine. True to the motto: Who owns a six-pack that has brought it to what. But underprivileged, as is often assumed by noble side, the five-cylinder is not: after all, he is more in relation to the safe quantitatively well equipped with a cylinder in the spread forever unassailable four-cylinder.

Last five-cylinder turbo in RS2 1994

More than a four-cylinder, but less than a six-cylinder - in times when downsizing is no longer taboo in the higher classes of vehicles, the number has five as a forward-looking compromise in terms of number of cylinders but literally, right? Among connoisseurs of matter the enthusiasm potential of this engine type is certainly known for some time, though the circle of those who with the legendary, 306-hp Audi Sport quattro from 1984 or the last five-cylinder turbo, the RS 2 of 1994, closer were allowed to get in touch, but overall has remained quite small.

Pikes Peak victory by Walter Röhrl in the five-cylinder model

The long break between the sports estate even asked towards the end of the era with support from Porsche to the wheels - the way the founders of the vehicle class of the sports estate - and the current, set up by the Quattro GmbH in-house Audi TT RS is probably due to the unfortunate circumstance, that the five-Ender fell as an intermediate solution between the popular four- and six-cylinders image moderately through the grate - although his motorsport career with the unforgettable Pikes peak victory by Walter Röhrl in the 600-hp Sport quattro S1 with the winning performances in the American IMSA GTO is blessed with almost legendary highlights.
But in fact the series of five is because of his unorthodox spark gap of 144 degrees and its peculiar firing order - 1-2-4-5-3 - and the resulting at higher speeds second-order mass forces technically more fraught with compromises more than a six-cylinder - what the fan base but did always emphasize as character-forming element. With special torsional vibration damper on the crankshaft, the refinement is already long no longer an issue. What remains is only the inimitable rhythm that the original engine type is accompanied a truly beguiling musicality for the best. 

TT RS reminiscent of old times Group B World Rally Championship

Who has heard ever the creamy, warm and sonorous roar of the Sport quattro, is located in the TT RS - feel immediately transported back to ancient group B times the World Rally Championship, when dealing with - albeit in muted volume and socially acceptable despite Sportauspuff a goose bumps announcing generating wastegate pipes, fire-breathing Allradler under Röhrl and Co. as a land-based missile competition taught fear. Objectively considered today it is still - or even more so - to give easy for the five-cylinder, the approval: First, it convinces with its considerably smaller pack size, which makes it ideal even for transverse installation in confined engine compartments. The cylinder spacing is only 88 mm, and also the laid inside the main bearings of the crankshaft contribute to that the Motorenmaß does not exceed the length of narrow 494 millimeters. 

On top of the weight advantage: With 183 kilograms, he is only 30 kilograms heavier than the two-liter four-cylinder from the TTS 2.5-liter engine. Thanks to the previously used exclusively for the large TDI engines, high-strength compacted graphite, font for the crankcase of this line five-cylinder is also significantly lighter than a comparable six-cylinder engine displacement. Even otherwise, this long-stroke engine is not bad: giving good service that the engine is in fragment-like similarity has long been in the VW Jetta North and Central American origin, is all the more remarkable given that he by no means makes representations in its present form with fussy character traits, but a has achieved technical brilliance to it - at least theoretically - could open up the wide world of motor racing as it was then. 

492 grams, the piston made of cast aluminum, forged connecting rods, sodium cooled exhaust valves for each 42 degrees hydraulically adjustable camshaft with two-stage chain transmission (the current of a particularly quiet toothed chain, a roller chain, and an intermediate gear is) as well as, of course, TFSI-injection - all on extremely compressed space and also processed visually very attractive. Finally, also contributes to the unusually large-sized turbocharger, the compressor wheel comprises at least 64 millimeters in diameter and can be up to 335 liters per second compress air at full load, to a result full of positive surprises.

Sprint to 100 km / h in 4.6 seconds

The hope or fear to experience a similar digital power delivery as once in around 720-hp, 2.2-liter Sport quattro S1, the IMSA series, confirmed in dealing with the current 2.5-liter turbo of the TT RS, however, not, though even here a power supply is present, which can eliminate the risk of a disappointment in its entirety. PS 340 and the maximum torque of 450 Newton meter, which is available from 1,600 / min fully available to represent a service package, which is likely to emphasize the predominant virtues of the wheel drive vehicle sustainable. But with all temperament that manifests itself, for example in the sprint to 100 km / h in a remarkable time of only 4.6 seconds, the TT RS is a high level of skill in the face of adversity, which holds the public road. 

In other words, he feels absolutely civilized, floats relatively unobtrusive with - and not annoying. On the contrary: The top model of the TT series evokes lasting driving pleasure and makes its practical aspects as self-evident to the fore as his brothers from volume production. What is obvious, but he shares with those most of its technical substance. The fact that it has the TT RS as a sly old ears, most outsiders remains hidden regardless of the front, rear and sill area but significantly sportier look - at least as long as they with 1483 kg not too heavy guessed quattro variant not in full get action to face. For then - at higher speeds and the appropriate dynamic - the affable sports type peels with its distinctive five-cylinder sound formally from everyday dress and sends extremely toned, polished and confident to beat not only the operating at the same performance level opponents cheat - he beset also significantly stronger. 

Nordschleife lap time of 8:09 minutes

What the TT RS has in the stocking, shows once again on the Nordschleife, where he is preparing with a sensational time of 8:09 minutes to put even the big brother R8 4.2 downright unabashed onto the tin. And mind you not with sport tires, but with conventional road tires Michelin Pilot brand sports in the special size 255/35 ZR 19 (Here are all the Super Test lap times on the Nordschleife) The defendant on the small track in Hockenheim, clearly pronounced tendency to understeer falls on the faster mountain and valley distance of the Nürburgring naturally less significant. The driving safety generated by the understeering interpretation transforms the TT RS on this terrain in an almost hündisch obedient being that so obedient bends the will of the determiner that the unconcern prevailed rapidly over all trials and tribulations. The beauty of it is that the formerly among his more civil predecessors complained wheel drive behavior - prancing around the vertical axis when the load changes and as yet criticized the TTS, counterproductive intervention actually off ESP - has the TT RS entirely deposited in favor of a liquid, elegant sports style , 

He puts his potential in exactly the route in the spotlight that comes to customary conditions and circumstances of public traffic the next. Pushing mainly caused by its front-heavy weight distribution over the front axle in slower corners and bends, then, watched him especially as the lap time at Hockenheim taken (1.15,0 min) for also does not justify disappointed faces. Nevertheless, also the TT RS is not the all-round super talent, as he is often exposed. That it is the wet element calculated in which the An incoming with a standard electronically controlled and hydraulically actuated multi-plate clutch, and therefore in theory the best armed for such conditions Allradler affords a faux pas is insofar unhappy, when such a presence by the experience of the TTS not be looking in the system, but rather in the tire sector. 

The tire choice were time-wise no differences

The fact is that the TT RS - like any austrainierte athletes - sensitive to the soling. A trial-by-step conversion of Michelin Pilot Sport to the new generation ContiSportContact 5 P resulted in wet handling test, although to a significant weakening of the phenomenon and also to a measurably improved time - but the trend remained unchanged: The TT RS tends to swerve the tail with little warning. So while the An incoming with baugleichem drive TTS Super Test responded on a wet track with striking push, the TT RS pushes so vehemently to the rear, it is advisable that insurance in the form of the now excellent because working subtly and with high efficiency ESP not completely terminate under these conditions. 

That there in the two sporty tailored tire options, Michelin has given in 19 and 20 inch Conti, shifting the center of gravity with the aim of further improving the dry grip, is obvious. The respectable lap times on both the ring and at Hockenheim where exactly the same lap time were driven to the tenth of a second with both types of tires can be no other conclusion. Consequently, it was obvious that the TT RS had to go out in the final discipline somewhat out of breath. And since we know that a sports car can only be as good as it allow its tires, we want to use this incident as an opportunity for once to utter the achievements of electronics our blessing. Seen in the light but such peculiarities involve a residual risk. Because that falls electronics - once again - the thankless task of compensating for a weakness in hardware.

Nürburgring Nordschleife 8.09,00 min
maximum of 10 points

The safety stressed tendency of understeer tendency is the TT RS on the Nordschleife so far benefited when he is presented with an absolutely foolproof handling. to throw him off course would be to do everything wrong, what's going to go wrong. The inspiring commitment is expressed not in vain in an excellent lap time, which is even well below the Porsche Cayman S. Speed ​​257 km / h on the Döttinger height are already a word.

Lap Nordschleife, Audi TT RS
Hockenheim-Ring Mini Course 1.15,0 min
maximum of 10 points

The succession with two different types of tires (Michelin and Continental) driven tests showed time-wise, amazingly, no differences - although significant differences in driving behavior were noticeable. With the new ContiSportContact 5 P comparably high level of safety the understeer was significantly less pronounced. The driving pleasure would through a basically neutral vote but surely still be increased.

Lap Hockenheim, Audi TT RS
Acceleration / braking 22.6 sec
maximum of 10 points

With his sprinting ability, the duped with a full tank 1483 kg heavy sports coupe even significantly stronger opponents at will. The traction is expected to be excellent in the longitudinal direction. nothing can be also expose the manually shifted six-speed gearbox. The coupling mechanism, however, seems to be somewhat overwhelmed by very fast operation. Reengagement then concluded with a slight delay, from which one could mistakenly conclude that the clutch is not up to the attacks of the engine completely - it is but. The brake system delivers good, but not outstanding results.

Acceleration 0-200 km / h:
17,5 s
Braking 200-0 km / h:
5.1 s
wind Tunnel
maximum of 10 points

The much broader, fixed rear wing had its effect not: Compared to the TTS (Super Test Audi TTS) has become significantly better aerodynamic balance. Although the lift on the rear axle now goes toward zero, he is also on the front axle, albeit marginally, reduced - from 420 to 358 Newton now. The aufnickende moment is now, however, increased slightly. A large contribution to the overall improvement in results can be attributed to the front apron and the effective spoiler lip. Amazingly, even the Cd value (0.31) so that even better than the TTS (0.32).

Front at 200 km / h
36 kg lift
Rear axle at 200 km / h
2 kg buoyancy
lateral acceleration 1.25 g
maximum of 10 points

The relation to the four-cylinder of the TTS heavier by about 30 kg line five-cylinder is the reason that the weight distribution of the TT RS somewhat discordant fails. 60.2 percent of the total mass of 1483 kg loads so on the front drive axle. The rear is just under 40 percent, that is 591 kg, applied. The genuine Yamaha 19-inch wheels are completely ZR fitted with Michelin Pilot Sport in size 255/35 19th The 20-inch alternative with the new ContiSportContact 5 P reveals the format 255/30 ZR 20th

36-meter slalom
maximum of 10 points

The spontaneous enthusiasm in the face of extremely agile stroke steering can be for something as soon as tighter turns to be addressed under load. Then that is a lot of understeer is the result. you work against it - as practiced in the slalom - consciously, the four-wheel drive shows with load changes generally quite accessible. The little easier expectant tail always provides good control on course, which is why an approach to the limit can be mastered safely. Faster than the lighter to a concise Zentner TTS RS variant is not here though.

change test 141 km / h
maximum of 10 points

The really be switched off in two stages by pressing a button ESP allows himself as a kind of last resort still access, especially when the brake pedal is operated in the heat. Unlike the TTS but the engagement mode is much more moderate. Electronics and driver so do not necessarily work against each other. The defendant in the four-cylinder tendency to hunting has not determine the TT RS. He remains on course when tends always easy sliding even under load on the front axle.

wet handling
maximum of 10 points

It depends less on the concept, but rather it from being implemented. This thesis is based of the all-wheel drive TT RS like no other. During the TTS at these low coefficients of friction stoically pushed through the front wheels, and so even the possible advantage over the weaker, front-wheel-driven two-liter variant abandoned, the current TT RS is a completely contrarian image. The abrupt breaking of the rear axle with low friction values ​​is sometimes not only high demands on the driver, but also brings the powerful coupe and temporally strongly behind. It lacks almost five seconds on the TTS. So it's not advisable to disable the ESP in wet conditions.


maximum 100 points

Quick, athletic, attractive, sociable - and expensive. The short attributes Collection outlines about the nature of the Audi TT RS, which seems to make a principle in its blend of forcefulness and reason. This assumption implies already know what one or another potential customer might miss potentially - one here and there a little more clearly worked out sports character. That means not that the wing or greater than the wheel arches should be wider issued. But as the differences between the equally distinctive TTS and TT RS top model are already visually little concise, so the differences in driving operation are initially hard to spot in everyday life. But better that way than the other way around. Because the RS makes considerably more than could be assumed after a glance. The front transverse mounted 2.5-liter five-cylinder turbo not only a wonderful tradition - with such famous ancestors such as the legendary Sport quattro S1 - but interpreted the engine issue at extremely attractive way new. With its 340 hp, it can be quite loose and relaxed as good as everything and everyone behind. That he can fall back on the usual for the top models Audi four-wheel drive, makes things easier. However, with few exceptions most foolproof handling is accompanied by a pronounced understeer. When (not expandable) tip of the TT RS is a good choice - but also a very expensive.


Quick, athletic, attractive, sociable - and expensive. The short attributes Collection outlines about the nature of the Audi TT RS, which seems to make a principle in its blend of forcefulness and reason. This assumption implies already know what one or another potential customer might miss potentially - one here and there a little more clearly worked out sports character. That means not that the wing or greater than the wheel arches should be wider issued. But as the differences between the equally distinctive TTS and TT RS top model are already visually little concise, so the differences in driving operation are initially hard to spot in everyday life. But better that way than the other way around. Because the RS makes considerably more than could be assumed after a glance. The front transverse mounted 2.5-liter five-cylinder turbo not only a wonderful tradition - with such famous ancestors such as the legendary Sport quattro S1 - but interpreted the engine issue at extremely attractive way new. With its 340 hp, it can be quite loose and relaxed as good as everything and everyone behind. That he can fall back on the usual for the top models Audi four-wheel drive, makes things easier. However, with few exceptions most foolproof handling is accompanied by a pronounced understeer. When (not expandable) tip of the TT RS is a good choice - but also a very expensive.

Driving pleasure:
9 points
Suitability for everyday use:
7 points

Child seat test 2015 (Group II-III): Safe driving for adults

Until our young around 12 years old, he has to ride in the car in a child seat. In the test, three products, as well and above all safe they really are.

18/11/2015 Annette Napp, Clemens Hirschfeld

If there were in this test a sympathy vote, the starter SP Disney would collect strong points. Lightning McQueen from the movie "Cars" adorns the child seat and quickly make friends. But what counts are the results of practice and crash test, the latter leads Auto Motor und Sport together with the TUV south through. And the favorable Starter SP can not überzeugen.Zwar it costs just under 70 euros - that is a fraction of the prices that are charged for the Cybex and the Recaro child seat in the test - but the low price you can tell the Disney- Based in all points. So for padding only a thin foam cover loosely over the simple molded plastic drawn. Unlike the other seat covers, these may only be washed by hand.

Child seat of Disney saves in security

To adjust the Disney Starter SP to the size of the child, only the headrest using locking in height can be moved. A plus point for the seat is the low weight of just under four kilos. In order for the installation and removal work quickly, easily and sometimes with only one free hand. Securing Isofix mounting arms do not exist, however. Therefore, the child seat should be used during each trip - strapped to prevent it from unsecured flying during braking or evasive maneuvers through the vehicle - even without a child. Information necessary for correct belt routing only provide small, printed on the seat sketches. but these are only poorly visible on the inside edge and partly hidden by the headrest. An instruction manual with tips and explanations for Disney seat does not exist.

However much outweigh the high readings in the crash. The stresses in the chest area are so high that can be expected in a real accident with injuries. Although the forward is still in the green, in comparison but the greatest. In addition, the Disney child seat offers little protection during a side impact. But should never be saved in the seat category II and III on safety. After all, these seats accompany the young from the age of about three years until these twelve years or 1.50 meters is great. As long as children are allowed to ride only with appropriate and approved restraint device in the car. What furniture comes for your child in question, read the top right.

Child seat Recaro universal for Group I to III

Some child seats strike a balance to cover the groups I to III, and are therefore suitable for children from about nine months. While most of their passengers secure in infancy with a padded table, the Young Sports Hero comes from Recaro without this controversial among experts and children do not always accepted system. Instead, sit the little ones at the beginning on an additional cushion and supported by an integrated point safety harness.

If they are large enough additional cushion and strap be removed. That's a bit fiddly but well described in the instructions and usually needed only once. In addition, easy to understand diagrams show the child seat as the vehicle belt must run. Because this ensures after reconstruction child and sitting together - and effective. Although the measured values ​​of the head acceleration are only just in the area for a recommended sentence, but the new, used this year for the first time Q-dummies react more sensitive than the previous H III dummy.

Solution M Cybex including Isofix locking arms for 180 euros

In the field test of the Recaro Young Sport Hero also scores well, and he also has to do without Isofix attachment arms. Pleasant though the handling would be if the seat would not be quite so heavy and bulky. Also, some features like height adjustment of the headrest are quite cumbersome. For this, the Recaro seat scores with the flexibility to use it for children from 9 to 36 kg. This also justifies the high price of nearly 240 euros.

Necessarily expensive but a child seat must not be as the last candidate proves in the test. The Solution M-fix Cybex costs about 180 euros. Without the recommended Isofix locking arms it is cheaper than Solution M 30 euros. The child, however, buckled in both cases with the normal three-point belt. Because the Isofix system stabilized in the larger groups the seat only addition. However, this is so even firmly and securely in the car when he is traveling without children. Mandatory but the use is not.

The Solution M-fix may only be installed with or without Isofix, the latching arms disappear if necessary in the case. The investment is worth it in any case - if not the current vehicle without corresponding Isofix hooks, then later than the new car. Within about eight to nine years service time a vehicle changes may well stand in line.

treat child seats second hand with caution

Whether with or without Isofix, the Cybex seat impresses with its easy handling and its sophisticated functions. Thanks to the light and airy acting construction, it can be installed quickly and easily. Even regular exchange between different cars represent no problem. Thus, the child seat is always optimal in the car, the backrest nestles in the tilt variable to the bench seat. Depending on the space available in the vehicle, an additional extendable side impact protection improves the stable state. In addition, the headrest is height adjustable, and the variable inclination is to prevent Vorkippen the head while sleeping. Overall, the Solution deserved M-fix the verdict "recommendable". In the field test, the child seat Cybex with good manual, quality workmanship and comfortable upholstery scores.

But much more important and decisive for the judgment are the results of the crash test. And there he convinces with the lowest load values ​​in this sitting. The prerequisite for this is the correct installation of the child seat with a seat part and backrest. For a space-saving transport both parts can be separated from each other, which may lead subsequently to use the lower part only as a simple booster seat. but that is not authorized or recommended. For the tests in recent years have proven that such a cheap booster seats are very uncertain and that the risk of injury is extremely high in an accident.

to treat similar with caution are used child seats, although the temptation for cost reasons, is often large. Even as emergency or second seat, they should only be an option if the history of the seat is known and an accident can be ruled out. Because the slightest damage and hairline cracks in the material are not visible to naked eye, but can be devastating with a renewed crash. In addition, the plastics age due to sunlight and temperature changes in the car and can become brittle over time. And that manufacturers develop their seats continually in terms of safety. The investment in modern - and tested - Seats is worthwhile in any case.

These child seats we tested
Cybex Solution M-fixBuy now from Amazon
Disney Starter SPBuy now from Amazon
Recaro Young Sport HeroBuy now from Amazon

Which seat fits my child?

For children up to twelve years and 1.50 meters tall in Germany a child seat is required. The approval standard ECE R44 divides the restraint systems on the weight of the child into five groups: Group 0 for babies to ten kilograms (age: about nine months) Group 0+ for babies up to 13 kg (approximately eighteen months) Group I for children 9-18 kg (nine months to four years), group II for children from 15 and 25 kg (three to seven years) and group III for children 22-36 kg (six to twelve years). Since 2013 parallel applies the UNECE R 129, also known as i-size, in which the height is crucial. It is also important that the manufacturer has released the desired location for the respective car. Especially with Isofix systems, there may be restrictions.

How We Tested

For over 20 years, auto motor und sport tested together with the TÜV Süd child seats. To simulate a head-on collision, the crash body is a Golf V decelerated from above 50 km / h by up to 31 times the acceleration of gravity. For comparison, the approval standard ECE R 44 only requires values ​​to a maximum of 28 g. For practical test Mazda 2, Opel Zafira Tourer and Renault Grand Kangoo were ready for installation. Handling were rated about to comfort the child and how articulate the instructions.


What may actually cost security - and expensive automatic choice? These questions arises probably everyone before making a purchase, no matter what the product. But when it comes to the welfare of our little ones, the price should never decide. A flat statement can not be derived from it, however. While in the first of three test suites for an infant car seat in a crash convinced, showed in the second part of a branded slight weaknesses. This time, scores the golden mean - the child seat Cybex offers high security and good quality at a reasonable price. The favorable Starter SP Disney saved at the expense of safety. Although readings in the yellow area does not necessarily mean serious injury, the risk is increased but in any case. He also does not provide side impact protection, and comfort turns out very meager. The Recaro Young Sport Hero can do better. Thanks to good results in the crash and flexible use in different age groups, the judgment is "recommended" rating.

The Nissan Qashqai in the test: With the Qashqai Nissan wants to conquer the golf class

With 21 centimeters of ground clearance and four-wheel drive of the Nissan Qashqai to attack the Golf class. Impossible?

22/06/2008 Powered by

The jokes will come, even determined. Why Nissan calls its new five-door also Qashqai? In explaining please double-listen: Qashqai - Kasch-kai spoken - is the name of an Iranian nomadic tribe (which there is not everything!). The little people lived in a desert, a fixed address is not known. The Nissan Qashqai also missing. It is a blend of SUV and compact cars. Golf disciples he is lured and simultaneously attract the Suzuki SX4 Group.

Nissan relies on the advantages of both vehicle worlds - and an almost wrinkle-free chassis with 4.32 meters in length (between Suzuki SX4 and Toyota RAV4). Wheelbase: 2.63 meters. The overhangs front and rear are short, door handles and roof far above. 1.61 meters extends the Qashqai in the air - twelve centimeters higher than the Golf 4Motion, five centimeters above the SX4.
Who palpated with closed eyes its shape, is ten euros on a sturdy combination with broad, rounded nose, flat windscreen Staff, towards the bow run-off roof and steep tailgate fitting. Roof rails and scratch protection strips are missing, but is wide plate plastic planks cling to the lower door edges, large sections of the bumpers are unlackiert.Wittern 4x4 all-wheel fans? Properly sniffed. Under the symbol 4WD and rear wheels dig with, if necessary. For this, the knob must be clicked to "AUTO" on the center console of "2WD" (front wheel drive). Sensors and engine control unit alert the rear axle at the traffic light sprint or on slippery meadows. The additional lard transmits an electromagnetically actuated multi-plate wet clutch. It inhabits the transfer case - and is constantly used when the wheel is in the cockpit to "LOCK". Distribution front to rear axle 57:43. Condition for the 4x4 magic: One of the two two-liter engines (from 22,840 euros, see Adie engines ") is present. 141 hp plus manual five-speed box indicate the gasoline, 150 hp plus six-speed manual the diesel. The 320 Newton meters of the diesel engine in the test car taste like warm beer: tolerable, not refreshing - 150 hp Nissan wants to have found? Until 2000 tours only pulse and noise levels increase. After that, the turbo boost comes. Pleasantly soft, but too late. embarrassed from its initial weakness, the turbocharger drives the diesel soot filter is provided with up to about 5000 rpm.

Convincing easily the manual six speed on. Even the purely electromechanical steering does not fall to negative. In keeping with the strict cranks: the chef excessively high chair and grip, two-way adjustable steering wheel. The cool cockpit look dominate speedometer and tachometer - both analog, both tennis ball size. To the right of a badly button-heavy center console pushes into the picture. To the southeast awaits a coolable glove box. Around the highest point - a seven-inch navigation display (optional) - feel the fingers soft plastics; at knee level shines hard plastic. What did not work, the wide C-pillars. Despite their small window they rob much visibility and increase the blind spot on the size XXL.

everything is a floor below set to Sport. McPherson front suspension and multi-link rear suspension always fighting for a precise road holding. In the suspension tuning was probably following thesis Act: On butterweich threatens seasickness - so it springs taut. At the latest after the first corner, the driver appreciates that his 1,614-kilogram ship slightly BMW X3 schmeckt.Auf the what-for-me-the-right-equipment issue are three answers: first The healthy base version is called Visia and has many shelves, a trip computer, a CD radio, air conditioning and full Sicherheitsschutz.2. More joy spread the well-stocked Acenta package with 16-inch aluminum rims, light and rain sensor, cruise control, lumbar supports in front, a front center armrest and a coolable Handschuhfach.3. Those looking for all-inclusive, the term Tekna should write. Among other things, 17-inch aluminum wheels, leather, a rich panorama glass roof, dual zone climate control system can be installed. Also automatic lovers can smile. Even twice: the 2.0 petrol engine is married to 1300 Euro with a continuously variable CVT transmission, the big diesel fits a six-speed converter with shift gate for self Select (1,300 euros). What the Qashqai's missing? An extensive test 4wheelfun. He should get. And quite soon.

Fiat Punto 0.9 Twinair Start & amp; stop in the test: Less cylinders, more price

Fiat Punto 0.9 Twinair Start & Stop Easy - the refreshed compact car Fiat has now for the first time with two-cylinder turbo engine on request. Fahrbericht the Punto.


Only 9,990 euros for a newly refurbished Fiat Punto - and that includes ESP, four airbags, start-stop function, central locking, air conditioning, CD radio and a portable navigation system. Wow, a great offer and definitely more remarkable than the small tweaking the front end and interior, the Fiat was given to his 2005 Grande Punto small car started again.

For this fare you get at VW while just a new VW Up with skim facilities, but also at Fiat Punto deal is only valid until the end of March and for the 69-hp base version Easy with two doors and four cylinders. Four? Was not the two-cylinder mentioned in the opening credits? That's right, in addition to the known Benziner-, diesel and natural gas engines, the 0.9 liter small twin from the 500 and the Lancia Ypsilon is growling in the Fiat Punto soon, but until April. And the proud basic rate of 15,200 euros.

Fiat Punto 0.9 Twinair snarls and snarls

By comparison, for a little less money Opel already provides the Corsa 1.4 with 100 hp and the Ford Fiesta 1.4 with 96 hp, each consuming about six liters per 100 kilometers. The turbocharged Fiat Punto 0.9 Twinair Start&Stop to contrast do with 4.2 liters. At least this is the promise.

Especially for use in the Fiat Punto 0.9 Twinair engineers have developed a new dual-mass flywheel and refined the engine mount. With success: The Twinair snarls and growls although just as entertaining as the spherical 500, but vibrates not quite as strong. He strained neatly on, absorbs quickly to around 5,000 rpm and blends well with the standard six-speed manual transmission.

The Fiat Punto TwinAir requires speeds

By Eco button, the engine power of 85 to 78 hp can restrict what you are anyway not notice in city traffic. Then the consumption should decline slightly again, which is also an urgent need to create the ambitious targets. But for the compared to 500 about 150 kg heavier Fiat Punto Twinair Start 0.9&to bring stop going, the turbo gasoline must constantly rotate between 3,000 and 5,000 trips on our first trip, including his lack of breath.

Of course, such high speeds drive the consumption of the Fiat Punto 0.9 Twinair upward, and the information in the on-board computer to 6.5 L / 100 km - 2.3 liters proud above the factory specification. If this value level off in normal everyday use, the question of the usefulness of this wedding is essential. Finally, also the Punto 1.4 with 77 hp and a start-stop system is to settle for less than six liters - and there's similarly equipped already for 13,800 euros.

Audi A1, Mini Cooper, Adam Opel in comparison: How does Adam against A1 and mini suggests?

The Opel Adam now drives a new three-cylinder turbo petrol engine - and the will to finally show it so Audi and Mini times. The Audi A1 comes with four-cylinder, the Mini Cooper with three-cylinder turbo. Let's go.

28/11/2014 Sebastian Renz

Today we may not even have a crisis. Because equal schamant a hobby psychologist, one must see the crisis as an opportunity. Sounds modern, but has always been that way. In this sense, thanks to the Suez crisis of 1956, without which we would not be standing in front of the Mini.

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comparison test Audi A1 1.4 TFSI, Mini Cooper, Adam Opel 1.0
auto motor und sport 24/2014
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Compact BMW, Opel, Seat and VW in the test: From because diesel is unsportsmanlike

After furious GTI debut now so the diesel variant: The VW Golf GTD steps into the ring of 180 hp plus stretching. However, BMW 120d know 2.0 TDI to fight Opel Astra GTC Biturbo CDTI and Seat Leon FR quite - and know how to fascinate.

07/12/2013 Jens Dralle Powered by

Whether Audi, BMW or anyone else - so victorious they may also have been a diesel racers in motorsport, the image breakdown of the compression-ignition engine as a sport can be further delayed. But out there is anyway more than 8 A Le Mans, more B27 than Spa Francorchamps, more than 1,212 L Nordschleife.

Opel Astra GTC Biturbo CDTI scratch the 200 hp mark

Exactly the curtain for compact diesel blast including the just shifted from the development department in the spotlight VW Golf GTD, the blood brother Seat León FR TDI, the freshly motorized Opel Astra GTC Biturbo CDTI and the established BMW 120d opens.

Under 184 hp and a maximum torque of 380 Newton meters, none of the four candidates trust in the ring, the Opel presses thanks to two turbochargers even 195 hp and 400 Nm from the combustion chambers. Again a reminder: These power plants stuck in commercially available compact car.

In the case of the Gulf of two-liter engine has wuppen 1,421 kilograms, the test car eventually swell plenty of extras out of control. As standard, however, are the sports seats with the characteristic checkered cloth cap. As in the gasoline-fired GTI well they provide each rider back the best possible support, be it through the firm padding or the powerful flanks.

Well then, let's go: Depress the clutch - no DSG! - press the start button, silence. Almost at least, because of the common rail engine works extremely cautious, rises only in sport mode his deep growling voice, however einspielt him a sound generator through the windshield.

VW engine is more sophisticated than the BMW diesel

All lies and deception, then? No, because the driving experience itself is really - really good. Low 1,500 / min, the four-cylinder grabs, reached at 1750 / min its torque peak, remains there until about 3000 / min and then rotates like to keep. From 4,000 rpm it gets a little tough then, the TDI as preaching to the classic low-speed diesel driving style. Yes and? In just 7.4 seconds - a tenth faster than the factory specification - sprints VW from zero to 100 km / h. Okay, slow speeds actually only the Opel, and indeed significantly (8.6 s).

BMW 120d, front view
BMW 120d in Hockenheim 1:39 min.

And when the engine power is distributed, the Golf has probably also a little dawdled, because here he also has the Seat and infuse the BMW. Why? Because the Spaniards weighs at least 49 kilos less and the BMW thanks to the eight-speed automatic transmission has the skillful translation. The Astra GTC uses the full force anything because he weighs a 1,574 kg - a whopping 202 kg more than the slight Leon.

It was only during the morning outing on the small track of Hockenheim, the Golf takes the morning exercise seriously. He directs agile, which progressively working steering with a more direct ratio than the standard Golf (2.1 instead of 2.75 turns lock to lock) gives a good feedback for everyday use holding forces. His slight understeer can be laminated with the mild load change reaction that is not completely deactivatable ESP maintains a large extent, a clean line out.

VW Golf GTD would need a differential lock

Only when accelerating out of tight corners, the traction is a whistling end - who would need the mechanical lock of the GTI, if not the bearish GTD? Nevertheless, he milled in brisk 1.21,1 minutes on the race track.

As I said, that is still far, however, everything points to the joy offered by the Golf in everyday life. Because in addition to the dynamic handling, it can be mastered easily at any time, giving the driver not only about the steering, but also by means of easily switchable and fit-ratio six-speed transmission at any time feel the boss to be in the ring. And if time is not the boss, but the gentleman is required, the Volkswagen springs still pretty good, but without denying its taut basic tuning ever - thanks to the 1,000 euro expensive option chassis.

The considerably more favorable consolidated brother Seat León FR also affords when processing any slips, looks very stiff and solid, but not quite so noble. In addition, its sports seats pack to not so intimate. But the ergonomics right, the instruments can be read properly.

Seat Leon FR and VW Golf GTD with identical engine

When driving the two differ in turn about as much as the contents of a pack eggs. Although the strongest representatives of the EA288 TDI generation rather than 1800 works with an injection pressure of 2,000 bar, he runs very cultivated. Only he did not invent the revving, yet gives the Leon a level of performance at which most of 1212, the head gasket hard nut between A 8, B 27 and L - especially at the intermediate sprints.

There should also be less worthy to be that of 17-inch frosted Seat (Golf: 18 inches) felt strongly pushes over the front wheels and can patronize much earlier by the ESP. The overall lowest level of grip also opens into the slowest speed in the slalom, what although direct, but also synthetic steering is attributed at least partly to blame.

All this is of course not without consequences on the excursion to the race track, where the León can not take advantage of his weight advantage. Too pronounced understeer, too tired responses to load changes, too soon taking place control interventions - a somewhat überlegterer grip in the shoe cabinet could bring about a different result. For this, the seat cushions mannerly, even without expensive adaptive dampers. Too bad that it just is no points for it. Nevertheless, the lively and light-footed appearance of the Spaniard stoking the anticipation of a somewhat skillful configured test car.

Astra case seems milled from a solid block of steel

Opel any case sends a reason the two-door GTC version of the Astra, because in contrast to the four-door stuck under its front end a so-called HiPerStrut suspension. Their greater castor angle and the reduced spreading allow to tilt while turning up further inward the wheels. In addition, the drive influences are to be minimized.

And indeed, there were up to the Astra, would be immediately removed all straight from the road construction plans in the world. He directs glorious a precise, remains long neutral before he takes refuge in safe understeer. Then a lob on gas helps the GTC, however, back on track, which in turn can be kept clean by means of linear and direct steering.

In this world, which consists only of curves Opel should like to ask the excellent seats in the parlor, which stuck for example in the OPC variants of the Astra. The mounted in the test car furniture lacked any case of lateral support and thigh support - and the engine to bite and emotions. The extremely responsive four-cylinder with turbocharging (from 3000 / min, the larger loaders working alone) sounds at least as sparkling as a lukewarm Binding tastes. And he strives honestly, but in vain with the apparently milled from a solid block of steel Astra sleeve.

BMW 120d celebrating Sex Pistols concert under the long hood

even the BMW two-liter (1,800 bar injection pressure) for the sound conferred no Emmy, and certainly not for the cold start nailing, but the 184-hp engine refuted the prejudice from the rotating lazy diesel. Okay, even if it falls from 5.000 / min the curtain. But at least until then, it goes to the long bonnet as once in a Sex Pistols concert - best acceleration and elasticity values ​​in the comparison test.

Which also includes the eight-speed automatic transmission is out of the way, quite the contrary: The close spread and fingers flicking like gear changes in the S mode it carries even a decisive contribution. Even on the racetrack, the translation proves to be accurate and additionally there is the remarkably agile tuned suspension of estorilblauen test car. Almost intuitive give in, no input understeer, but under load and under braking even slight tail pans - which had been on it, no ones the F20 generation.

And because, moreover, the driver nearly perfect working conditions - may be that the sports seats for one or the other a little cut too narrow - finds really surprised the fastest times on the small track and slalom now anyone. The most consistent braking performance makes the victory perfect.

Seat is king consumption at 7.9 liters per 100 kilometers in section

Oh, then there's the consumption, which even provided can also contribute to driving pleasure. Opel: 10.7 L / 100 km, Seat: 7.9, VW: 8.6. And the BMW? 8.3 L / 100 km. At least now the shell-diesel Image plays no more role.

Lancia Flavia Cabrio in the test: Italian is a question of attitude

The Lancia Flavia Convertible comes as Italian Chrysler 200 Convertible to us on the market. We went with him through the new home from Sicily to Rome.

07/26/2012 Sebastian Renz

The Mediterranean is popping sluggish at the pier of Messina, as a Fähreinweiser zuschlurft on us. He wears a safety vest, on a belt croaks a walkie-talkie - two insignia qualified possession to acquire instructions authorized tasks - and informs smiling over the rather negligible due to the delay: "Your ship isä in a little Havaria." Welcome to Italy, Lancia Flavia Cabrio.

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Report Lancia Flavia Ami go Rome
auto motor und sport 16/2012
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